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Kind: A Local Kubernetes Engine

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Kind: A Local Kubernetes Engine

Rohith Raju's photo
Rohith Raju
ยทNov 18, 2022ยท

4 min read

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Table of contents

Why do you need Kind?

Say, you have all your manifests ready and you want to deploy them quickly before moving them to production. You don't want to use any cloud providers to get your cluster up and running. What are the options? Well, you can create a cluster locally and deploy your application in under a minute. This also holds true for beginners that are hesitant to use cloud providers after hearing about the scary stories of expensive invoices. In conclusion, kind is capable of simulating your production-grade cluster.

What is Kind?

Kind is a tool built by the Kubernetes community to deploy a cluster locally that is speedy and lightweight. It uses Docker containers as its nodes. Its image is kindest/node. With this, you don't have to worry about spawning a VM and therefore it is significantly fast.

What about Minikube ? Is it still relevant?

Absolutely not. Although Minikube runs on top of a hypervisor (newer versions now support docker driver too) and is slower than kind by running Minikube on VMs, you get the VM isolation which is 'more secure per see and not to mention it provides options on using it on multiple hypervisors such as VirtualBox, Hyperkit, parallels, etc.

Notable Features of Kind

  • Since the nodes are Docker containers, we can deploy more than 1 control plane and workers.
  • Bringing up clusters at lightning speed since the docker image is cached the first time you create the cluster.
  • Ability to load your local images directly into the cluster. This saves a few extra steps of pushing your image to a container registry. You can do that by running
    kind load docker-image my-app:latest

No Loadbalancer

As Kind is deployed on docker containers, it doesn't come with a built-in load balancer as it does on minikube. But there is a workaround for this. You can use MetalLB to bring up a load balancer.

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/metallb/metallb/v0.13.7/config/manifests/metallb-native.yaml

Hello World App

We will now deploy a simple hello world application using Kind cluster. I will be using an ingress controller instead of a load balancer. You can know more about the difference between ingress and load balancer here

Step 1: Create a Kind Cluster

For this, to work, we need to create a custom cluster having

  • extraPortMappings : This allows localhost to make requests to your cluster
  • node-labels: Let the ingress controller the port's availability by setting a label.

Now create a config file which will be passed to kind when creating a cluster.

kind: Cluster
apiVersion: kind.x-k8s.io/v1alpha4
nodes:
- role: control-plane
  kubeadmConfigPatches:
  - |
    kind: InitConfiguration
    nodeRegistration:
      kubeletExtraArgs:
        node-labels: "ingress-ready=true"
  extraPortMappings:
  - containerPort: 80
    hostPort: 80
    protocol: TCP
  - containerPort: 443
    hostPort: 443
    protocol: TCP

Then pass this config file to kind create cluster to create a cluster using the above-defined config

kind create cluster --name=hello-world --config=kind.yml

Step 2: Use the Nginx Ingress Controller

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/main/deploy/static/provider/kind/deploy.yaml

This manifest contains kind specific patches to forward the hostPorts to the ingress controller.

Wait until the Nginx controller in the pod is running

kubectl get pods --namespace ingress-nginx
NAME                                       READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
ingress-nginx-admission-create-l2rbj       0/1     Completed   0          27m
ingress-nginx-admission-patch-rdlrl        0/1     Completed   0          27m
ingress-nginx-controller-6bccc5966-grkxp   1/1     Running     0          27m

Step 3: Hello world app

For this demo, we will be using a simple web server image which is hashicorp/http-echo that echos back the arguments are given to it.

  • Pod

    kind: Pod
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
    name: hello-world-app
    labels:
      app: hello-world
    spec:
    containers:
    - name: Hello-world-app
      image: hashicorp/http-echo:0.2.3
      args:
      - "-text=Hello World! Kubernetes with kind App"
    
  • Service

    kind: Service
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
    name: hello-world-service
    spec:
    selector:
      app: hello-world
    ports:
    - port: 5678
    
  • Ingress Controller

    apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
    kind: Ingress
    metadata:
    name: example-ingress
    spec:
    rules:
    - http:
        paths:
        - pathType: Prefix
          path: "/home"
          backend:
            service:
              name: hello-world-service
              port:
                number: 5678
    

Step 4: Deploying

You can wire all the components into one single file. Something like this

image.png

  1. First, we define a pod with a single container and its respective image that it should be running.

  2. Then we define a service that acts as an intermediate between the pod and the ingress controller. The service exposes the pod's default port which is 5678.

  3. Finally we define an entry point that sits in front of multiple services in the cluster aka Ingress to send the localhost request to the pod.

kubectl deploy -f hello.yml

Check if the pods are up and running. The deployment will be done in the default namespace.

kubectl get pods,svc
NAME                  READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/hello-world-app   1/1     Running   0          67m

NAME                          TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
service/hello-world-service   ClusterIP   10.96.36.194   <none>        5678/TCP   67m
service/kubernetes            ClusterIP   10.96.0.1      <none>        443/TCP    70m

Looking good. Last but not the least, our output

curl localhost/home
Hello World! Kubernetes with kind App

Thanks for the Kindness. Now I want to get rid of my cluster.

You have been waiting for this haven't you ๐Ÿ˜œ. Jokes aside, to delete your cluster

kind delete cluster --name=hello-world

References

  1. Kind Ingress
  2. Load Balancer
  3. Kubernetes

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